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When Muhammad died, Abu Bakr and Umar, his two companions, were in the Saqifah meeting to select his successor while the family of Muhammad was busy with his funeral.
Controversy among the Muslims emerged about whom to name as Caliph.
al-Khilāfa-al-Rāshidah) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad after his death in 632 CE (AH 11).
The war was primarily between those who supported Uthman's cousin and governor of the Levant Muawiyah, and those who supported the caliph Ali.
Many tribal leaders made claims to prophethood; some made it during the lifetime of Muhammad.
Abu Bakr, a close companion of Muhammad from the Banu Taym clan, was elected the first Rashidun leader and began the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula. Abu Bakr was succeeded by Umar, his appointed successor from the Banu Adi clan, who began the conquest of Persia from 642 to 651, leading to the defeat of the Sassanid Empire.
Umar was assassinated in 644 and succeeded by Ali, who presided over the civil war known as the First Fitna (656–661).
Despite the initial reservations of his advisers, Abu Bakr recognised the military and political prowess in Umar and desired him to succeed as caliph.
The decision was enshrined in his will, and on the death of Abu Bakr in 634, Umar was confirmed in office.